Restoring foot function with foot wedges.

Tags: foot, foot function, Science

“It is essential to have good tools, but it is also essential that the tools should be used in the right way”

(Wallace D Wattles)

MacConaill (1945) demonstrated that the bones and ligaments of the foot form a twisted plate, flat against the ground under the toes and metatarsal heads and twisting through the mid foot to vertically bisect the heel bone. The twisted plate model explains all aspects of normal foot function, it also explains the two major types of foot dysfunction where the foot is overly twisted (high-arched, rigid feet) or overly untwisted (collapsed feet).

A previous post explained how the origin of both types of dysfunction is an unstable forefoot, the cure for which is functional footwear with freedom for the toes to spread and lie horizontal to the ground. Once the forefoot is stabilised, the next step in restoring foot function is to regain the normal twisting function of the foot plate. Correctly used, foot wedges can achieve this.

While foot wedges are common place in orthotic design, flawed ideas about foot function models of foot function post ead to incorrect use of these tools to restrain the very movements needed to restore normal foot function. In contrast, guided by the twisted plate model, the use of foot wedges has been shown to re-establish normal foot function and restore normal loading patterns through the foot (Araujo et al., 2019; Kogler et al., 1999).

For a science-based solution to restore normal twisted-plate function of your foot and begin your journey to pain-free running, figure out your foot dysfunction and use functional footwear and foot wedges. Learn how at


Araujo, V.L.,  Souza, T.R., Magalhaes, F.A., Santos, T.R.T., Holt, K.G., Fonseca, S.T. (2019). Effects of a foot orthosis inspired by the concept of a twisted osteoligamentous plate on the kinematics of foot-ankle complex during walking: A proof of concept. Journal of Biomechanics, 93, 118-125.

Kogler, G.F.,Veer, F.B., Solomonidis, S.E., Paul, J.P. (1999). The influence of medial and lateral placement of orthotic wedges on loading of the plantar aponeurosis. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 81(10), 1403-1413.

MacConaill, MA. (1945) The postural mechanism of the human foot. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section B: Biological, Geological, and

Chemical Science, 50, 265-278.

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